In 2010 the American sociologists Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright identified conservative think-tanks, along with U.S. conservative politicians, media and fossil fuel corporations, as crucial components in a “denial machine” that emerged in the 1990s. Reducing emissions represented a direct threat to the profits of fossil fuel companies and the fossil fuel industry had been making use of its lobbying group, the Global Climate Coalition, since 1989 to stress the uncertainties of climate science. Written in American Petroleum Institute slogan: “Project goal: a majority of the American public, including industry leadership, recognizes that significant uncertainties exist in climate science,” and that “Victory would be achieved if those promoting the Kyoto treaty on the basis of extant science appear to be out of touch with reality”.